The Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (NDP3) and the Evidence Base
The treatment approach of the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (NDP3) has been evaluated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and in a number of single case studies.
It is included as an intervention on The Communication Trust’s What Works database and currently has a rating of moderate evidence, in line with other published speech interventions. Within the evidence, successful outcomes have been reported for NDP3 both in the RCT and in case studies.
Randomised Controlled Trial (Murray, McCabe & Ballard, 2015)
Twenty-six children, aged 4 to 12 years, diagnosed with mild to severe Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) were randomly assigned to receive treatment either with the NDP3 or with Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment. Treatment was delivered intensively in one hour sessions, four days a week over a three week period by student speech and language pathologists attending the University of Sydney, who were trained and supervised closely by the authors. The results showed large treatment effects and significant generalisation to untreated stimuli for both interventions. Therefore, both NDP3 and ReST treatment were found to have support for clinical use.
For further details, see:
Murray, E. McCabe, P., & Ballard, K (2015) A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing Rapid syllable transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (3rd edition). Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, vol 58 (3), 669-686.
Murray,E, McCabe,P & Ballard, K.J (2012) A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial. BMC Paediatrics, 2012, 12:112.
A second RCT investigating the use of NDP3 treatment in tablet form is currently taking place at the University of Sydney.
- Six descriptive case studies are included in Chapter 7 of the Therapy manual of NDP3 (Williams and Stephens, 2004). These case studies demonstrate treatment planning and the NDP3 therapy approach in specific children, aged 4-12 years. The children all achieved intelligible speech following intervention but the duration and quantity of therapy varied and the treatment was delivered by different speech and language therapists.
- Saunders (2006) reported a single case study of a 3 year old child called Caelen, who had a dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD). Saunders (2006) followed the principles of the NDP3 treatment approach and utilized the NDP3 picture resources and delivered the treatment in once weekly therapy sessions, supported by practice at home and at nursery. Caelen was reported to have made excellent progress with his speech and expressive language development, following intervention.
For further details, see:
Saunders, H. (2006) How I (2): Phonology never too soon to start. Speech and Language Therapy in Practice, Summer 2006 27-28. www.speechmag.com
- Teal (2005) reported a single case study of Ruth, aged 6 ;11 years, who had persisting speech difficulties. NDP3 and Core vocabulary (Dodd, 2005) were utilized during a course of intensive therapy and both were found to be effective in bringing about change, but in different aspects of Ruth’s speech processing system. Furthermore NDP3 also produced significant generalization to untreated words.
For further information, see:
Teal, J (2005) An investigation into classification approaches and therapy outcomes for a child with a severe persisting speech difficulty. Unpublished MMedSci. Dissertation. Department of Human Communication Sciences, University of Sheffield.
Williams, P & Stephens, H (2010) The Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme, (chapter 7, p.159-177), in Williams, L, McLeod, S & McCauley R (eds.) (2010) Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Baltimore, Maryland. Brookes Publishing Co.