Information on the NDP3 treatment approach


Williams, P., & Stephens, H. (Eds) (2004) The Therapy Manual of The Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme, 3rd Edition. London: The Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme Ltd.

Williams, P. & Stephens, H. (2010) The Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme. Chapter 7, pp. 159-177. In Williams, A.L., McLeod, S., McCauley, R. (eds) (2010) Interventions for Speech sound disorders in children. Baltimore, Maryland. Brookes Publishing Co.

Williams, P. & Stephens, H. (2015) A46 The Nuffield approach to CAS and other motor speech disorders. In Bowen, C. (2015) Children’s Speech sound disorders, 2nd edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 357-367.

Williams, P. (2021) The Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (chapter 18) in Williams, A.L, McLeod, S., & McCauley, R.J. (eds.) (2021). Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children (2nd edition). Baltimore, Maryland: Brookes Publishing Co.

Journal articles

Murray, E., McCabe, P. & Ballard, K. J. (2012) A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial. BMC Paediatrics, 2012, 12:112.

Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K.J. (2015) A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing Rapid syllable transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (3rd edition). Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, vol. 58 (3), 669-686.

Saunders, H. (2006) How I (2): Phonology never too soon to start. Speech and Language Therapy in Practice, Summer 2006 27-28.

Also click here for “NDP3 and the evidence base” on this site

Information on developmental verbal dyspraxia/ childhood apraxia of speech

RCSLT (2011) Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists: Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (Policy Statement on Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia). Click here to download (PDF). Also available at

ASHA (2007) Childhood Apraxia of Speech [Position statement and Technical Report]. Available online at:

or at:

General note: The Apraxia Library on the Apraxia kids web site also contains many useful articles aimed at professionals.


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