Information on the NDP3 treatment approach

Williams, P., & Stephens, H. (Eds.) (2004). The Therapy Manual of The Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme, 3rd Edition. London: NCDP Ltd.

Book chapters

Murray, E. (2017). Diagnosis and intervention in childhood apraxia of speech. In B. Dodd & A. Morgan (Eds.), Intervention Case Studies of Child Speech Impairment (Chapter7, pp.115-135). Guildford, Surrey, UK: J & R Press.

Williams, P. (2021). The Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (chapter 18) in Williams, A.L, McLeod, S., & McCauley, R.J. (eds.) (2021). Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children (2nd edition). Baltimore, Maryland: Brookes Publishing Co.

Williams, P. (2023). The Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (Question 33, p.393-403). In C. Bowen (2023), Children’s Speech Sound Disorders, 3rd edition. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Williams, P. & Stephens, H. (2010). The Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme. Chapter 7, pp. 159-177. In Williams, A.L., McLeod, S., McCauley, R. (eds) (2010) Interventions for Speech sound disorders in children. Baltimore, Maryland. Brookes Publishing Co.

Williams, P. & Stephens, H. (2015). A46 The Nuffield approach to CAS and other motor speech disorders. In Bowen, C. (2015) Children’s Speech sound disorders, 2nd edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 357-367.

Journal articles

McKechnie, J., Ahmed, B., Gutierrez-Osuna, R., Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K.J. (2020). The influence of type of feedback during tablet-based delivery of intensive treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. Journal of Communication Disorders, 87, 106026. https://10.1016/j.jcomdis.2020.106026

Morgan, A.T., Murray, E., & Liegeois, F.J. (2018). Interventions for childhood apraxia of speech. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018(5).

Murray, E. & Iuzzini-Seigel, J. (2017). Efficacious treatment of children with childhood apraxia of speech according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, SIG 2, vol.2(part 2), p.61-76.

Murray, E., McCabe, P. & Ballard, K. J. (2012) A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial. BMC Paediatrics, 2012, 12:112.

Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K.J. (2015) A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing Rapid syllable transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme (3rd edition). Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, vol. 58 (3), 669-686.

Saunders, H. (2006) How I (2): Phonology never too soon to start. Speech and Language Therapy in Practice, Summer 2006 27-28.

Also click here for “NDP3 and the evidence base” on this site

Information on developmental verbal dyspraxia/ childhood apraxia of speech

ASHA (2007). Childhood Apraxia of Speech [Position statement and Technical Report]. Available online at: or at:

General note: The Apraxia Library on the Apraxia kids web site also contains many useful articles aimed at professionals.

McCabe, P., Murray, E., & Thomas, D. (2024). Evidence Summary –Childhood Apraxia of Speech-January 2024. Click here to download.

RCSLT (2024). Position Paper on Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS).  Click here to download (PDF). Also available at

NB this has replaced the RCSLT (2011) Policy Statement on Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD).

For further information on DVD/CAS references, please contact us at

NDP3® Assessment HCE transcription

Australian Speech Pathologists are increasingly using the Harrington, Cox and Evans (HCE) (1997) transcription system in preference to the Mitchell (1946) transcription system, for describing Australian English. We are therefore pleased to provide a phonemic transcription of the NDP3 Assessment single vowels, words, phrases and sentences for a typical Australian adult speaker, using the HCE system. The document is a 5-page PDF.


We are very grateful to Felicity Laurence, Certified Practising Speech Pathologist from Tasmania, and to Professor Felicity Cox, Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, New South Wales, for their help in this matter.

Click here to download the NDP3® Assessment HCE transcription

© Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme Ltd 2018. Please respect our copyright.